Vision Testing: The primary function of the eye is vision. Therefore the first test is to check one’s visual acuity (VA), a system of grading the level of vision of which the eye is capable. This is done without and with lenses, if you wear spectacles. If your VA is below standard, you may be asked to read the chart through small holes (Pin Holes [PH]) in a disc. If the VA improves by looking at PH, then it should improve with spectacles or contact lenses.
A reading chart is used to assess near vision. The smallest print that one is able to read clearly is recorded. Persons aged 40 and over usually need glasses for clear near vision.
Refraction is the determination of your prescription for lenses, if needed. The practice of ophthalmology is very technology-dependent, and refraction usually begins with the use of the autorefractor.